Do I understand that the highest marginal rate (on taxable earnings of >180K) is 45%? And for this hypothetical person, if they chose to use the public system (Aus Medicare), they'd pay an additional 4K levy?This is the calculator but in general the levy is 1.5% to 2% of taxable income. Pensioners and low income people do not pay the levy at all.
Medicare levy calculator | Australian Taxation Office
The medicare levy surcharge is applied to people who can afford private health insurance but choose not to. We are all expected to make some provision for our own health costs if we can afford it rather than expect the government to pay for everything and everyone. It is the reason why private health funds have not been driven out of business. Like most other things in Australia, our health care system is a mix of private enterprise and government. Capitalism and socialism combined.
Again, are Aus Medicare workers public employees?
Ah, here we go:
States own and manage service delivery for public hospitals, ambulances, public dental care, community health (primary and preventive care), and mental health care. They contribute their own funding in addition to that provided by federal government. States are also responsible for regulating private hospitals, the location of pharmacies, and the health care workforce.
This sounds like all public hospitals that are a part of the Medicare system are stated-owned, and hence we might suppose that the employees are state employees.
Basically, this how you can control costs in the public system. It requires nationalization of healthcare infrastructure.