History, anything goes, including pictures

RnR

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6 June 1933 – The first drive-in theatre opens in Camden, New Jersey, United States.

The drive-in theatre was patented in Camden, New Jersey by chemical company magnate Richard M. Hollingshead, Jr. In 1932, Hollingshead conducted outdoor theatre tests in his driveway at 212 Thomas Avenue in Riverton. After nailing a screen to trees in his backyard, he set a 1928 Kodak projector on the hood of his car and put a radio behind the screen, testing different sound levels with his car windows down and up.



Hollingshead's drive-in opened in New Jersey on 6 June 1933, on Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Pennsauken Township. It offered 400 slots and a 12 by 15 metre screen. The first film shown was the Adolphe Menjou film Wife Beware. Hollingshead advertised his drive-in theatre with the slogan, "The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are."
 

RnR

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6 June 1944 – D-Day commences with the Battle of Normandy landings of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches in France.

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. The largest seaborne invasion in history, the operation began the liberation of German-occupied northwestern Europe from Nazi control, and contributed to the Allied victory on the Western Front.

The operation was the largest amphibious invasion in world history, with over 160,000 troops landing. Some 195,700 Allied naval and merchant navy personnel in over 5,000 ships were involved.



In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, Operation Bodyguard, using both electronic and visual misinformation. This misled the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in charge of developing fortifications all along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an invasion.

The landings took place along a 50-mile stretch of the Normandy coast divided into five sectors: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword. Troops managed only to gain a small foothold on the beach, but they built on their initial breakthrough in the coming days and a harbour was opened at Omaha.
 

RnR

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7 June 1654 – Louis XIV is crowned King of France.

Louis XIV (1638–1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. His coronation was held on 7 June 1654. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.

Louis XIV in coronation robes, portrait by Pierre Mignard. The Coronation of Louis XIV, an etching by Jean Le Pautre 1655, The Met.



He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.

Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles.



During Louis' reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military.
 

RnR

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7 June 1929 – The Lateran Treaty is ratified, bringing Vatican City into existence.

The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929. The Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929.



The Lateran Treaty recognised the Vatican City as an independent state, with the Italian government, at the time led by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, agreeing to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States. In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognised in the Constitution of Italy as regulating the relations between the State and the Catholic Church.

The Papal States were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Vatican.
 

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8 June 632 – Muhammad, Islamic prophet, dies in Medina.

Muhammad (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) is the prophet of Islam and widely identified as its founder. According to Islamic doctrine, he was God's Messenger sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in primary branches of Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings, practices, and the Quran, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief.

The Green Dome over Muhammad’s tomb in Medina.



The structure dates back to 1279 AD, when an unpainted wooden cupola was built over the tomb. It was later rebuilt and painted using different colours twice in the late 15th century and once in 1817. The dome was first painted green in 1837, and hence became known as the Green Dome.

Muhammad gained few early followers, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed.

In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.
 

RnR

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8 June 1949 – George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is first published.

Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published on 8 June 1949 by English author George Orwell. The novel is set in the year 1984 when most of the world population have become victims of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and public manipulation. In the novel, Great Britain ("Airstrip One") has become a province of a superstate named Oceania. Oceania is ruled by the "Party", who employ the "Thought Police" to persecute individualism and independent thinking. The Party's leader is Big Brother, who enjoys an intense cult of personality but may not even exist.

George Orwell at the BBC in 1941. First edition cover, 8 June 1949.




As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, doublethink, thoughtcrime, Newspeak, Room 101, telescreen, and memory hole, have entered into common usage since its publication in 1949.

Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which describes official deception, secret surveillance, brazenly misleading terminology, and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state.
 

mellowyellow

Senior Member
jap.jpg
A Japanese soldier wades into the sea off Cape Endaiadere, New Guinea, with a grenade against his head moments before it goes off, defying an Australian soldier calling on him to surrender, December 18, 1942
 

mellowyellow

Senior Member
ottoman.jpg
Pascal Sebah photo "Turkish Cafe" 1870's.

Turkish Coffee Culture: Istanbul has long been the home to coffee houses and the various groups and intellectuals who spent time in them since the advent of coffee culture in the 16th century during the Ottoman era.
 

RnR

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9 June 1672 – Peter the Great, Russian emperor is born.

Peter the Great (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725. Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernising Russia. Heavily influenced by his advisors from Western Europe, he reorganised the Russian army along modern lines and dreamed of making Russia a maritime power.

He faced much opposition to these policies at home but brutally suppressed rebellions against his authority. Peter implemented social modernisation in an absolute manner by introducing French and western dress to his court and requiring courtiers, state officials, and the military to shave their beards and adopt modern clothing styles. In 1712, Peter moved his capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg which he established in 1703.

Portrait of Peter I by Godfrey Kneller in 1698, this portrait was Peter's gift to the King of England. Portrait by Paul Delaroche, 1838.



Through a number of successful wars, Peter the Great expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment. His reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to the reign of Peter the Great.
 

RnR

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10 June 1692 – Bridget Bishop is hanged for witchcraft at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts.

Bridget Bishop (circa 1632 – 10 June 1692) was the first person executed for witchcraft during the Salem witch trials in 1692. Altogether, about 72 people were accused and tried, while 19 others were executed.

Bishop was sentenced to death and hanged on 10 June 1692.



Bishop was accused of bewitching five young women, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam, Jr., Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott, and Elizabeth Hubbard, on the date of her examination by the authorities, 19 April 1692. Bishop may have been accused because she stood to inherit from her deceased husband. Reportedly, Bridget Bishop had an unusual personality. She was said to own a tavern in her home, where illegal shuffleboard was played and minors were served. She deliberately dressed differently, in a trademark red tunic, and was very outspoken.
 

RnR

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11 June 1776 – The US Continental Congress appoints the Committee of Five to draft the Declaration of Independence.

The delegates of the United Colonies in Congress resolved to postpone until Monday, July 1, the final consideration of whether or not to declare the several sovereign independencies of the United Colonies, which had been proposed by the North Carolina resolutions. During these allotted three weeks Congress agreed to appoint a committee to draft a broadside statement to proclaim to the world the reasons for taking America out of the British Empire.

The Committee of Five: L to R, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Robert R. Livingston.



The Committee of Five of the Second Continental Congress was a team of five men who drafted and presented to the Congress what would become America's Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776. This Declaration committee operated from June 11, 1776, until July 5, 1776, the day on which the Declaration was published.
 

RnR

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12 June 1817 – Karl Drais first rode his invention the Laufmaschine, the earliest form of a bicycle, in Germany.

Karl Freiherr von Drais (1785–1851) was a German Baron, state of Baden official and a prolific inventor, who invented the Laufmaschine or ”running machine", later called the Velocipede or Draisine, and nicknamed the hobby horse or dandy horse. This was his most popular and widely recognised invention. It incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanised personal transport.

Karl von Drais on his original Laufmaschine, the earliest two-wheeler, in 1819. Artist unknown. A Laufmaschine from around 1820. Kurpfalzisches Museum in Heidelberg, Germany.



However, after marketing the Velocipede it became apparent that roads were so rutted by carriages that it was hard to balance on the machine for long, so Velocipede riders took to the sidewalks and moved far too quickly, endangering pedestrians. Consequently, authorities in Germany, Great Britain, the United States, and even Calcutta banned its use, which ended its vogue for decades.

Baron Karl Drais circa 1820. Commemorative stamps.



Drais also invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard in 1821. He later developed an early stenograph machine which used 16 characters in 1827, a device to record piano music on paper in 1812, the first meat grinder, and a wood-saving cooker including the earliest hay chest. He also invented two four-wheeled human powered vehicles in 1813/1814, the second of which he presented in Vienna to the congress carving up Europe after Napoleon's defeat. In later years he developed a foot-driven human powered railroad vehicle whose name "Draisine" is used even today for railroad handcars.
 

mellowyellow

Senior Member
jerusalum.jpg
It’s not that uncommon to get snow in Jerusalem but the storm on February 25th, 1921 was quite severe.

The British were victorious over the Ottomans in the Middle East during World War I and victory in Palestine was a step towards dismemberment of that empire. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, entered Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, on 11 December 1917.

By the time General Allenby took Jerusalem from the Ottomans in 1917, the new city was a patchwork of neighbourhoods and communities, each with a distinct ethnic character. This continued under British rule, as the New City of Jerusalem grew outside the old city walls, and the Old City of Jerusalem gradually emerged as little more than an impoverished older neighbourhood...................

https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/jerusalem-snow/
 

Pappy

Living the Dream
Authored by Charlene Crandall, Melbourne, FL:
Nazi POW's in Melbourne.

Hitler’s Soldiers In Florida
an article in Orlando Sentinel by Joseph R. Morgan

"The citrus industry of Central Florida was the major beneficiary of the first wave of branch camp expansion in Florida," writes Robert D. Billinger Jr., a professor at North Carolina's Wingate College, in his in 2000 book Hitler's Soldiers in the Sunshine State."

A small camp of 127 POWs was located in Melbourne and another 148 in Clewiston to harvest sugarcane, where they slept in tents and it was very hot in the fields. The POWs were guarded by 20 Americans.

Florida has a long history of putting state and county prisoners to work, but few realize that some of those workers were prisoners of war. German POWs ended up on U.S. soil during World War II because the Nazis controlled much of Europe, leaving the Allies few choices. Holding German POWs across the Atlantic was safer that setting up prison camps in Britain. Most of the time, people didn't know we were hosting POWs on American soil.

As many as 10,000 German POWs were held at Florida camps. They worked in citrus groves, packinghouses, lumber mills, laundries, building supply yards, plant nurseries, cement plants and box plants. Florida needed workers during the war because so many people were serving in the military or working at defense-related jobs.

The United States opened camps for 378,000 prisoners of war from 1942 until 1946. Many of the Florida prisoners were German U-boat sailors. German boats operated along the Atlantic coast and the Caribbean and there were even scattered historical references to U-boats spotted in the St. Johns River. Many of these prisoners were from the North Afrika Korp, which were settled in the 48 states, with 10,000 located in 27 camps in Florida. Some of the POWs were from Italy.

Many POWs were not released after the war, but were sent to France and Britain to work to clean up damages from the war, including digging up old bombs, cleaning out rivers and streams, installing sewerage systems and otherwise putting things right. Nobody wins in war.

Source: Jim Robinson, Orlando Sentinel, February 22, 2004.

Robert D. Billinger Jr., Hitler’s Soldiers in the Sunshine State, January 1, 2000





From: http://www.brevardcounty.us/docs/files/12springsummer.pdf
EE7C40E7-36DF-4B18-AFE9-4E07ECB8538F.jpeg6A433440-9F52-48A9-82BC-615B244AF00F.jpegA1C9E6E3-41FD-4FF7-A9C9-9338884C88E7.jpeg27539B45-7F26-4699-ACBE-3E92B52C03BE.jpeg
 

RnR

Member
View attachment 168875
It’s not that uncommon to get snow in Jerusalem but the storm on February 25th, 1921 was quite severe.

The British were victorious over the Ottomans in the Middle East during World War I and victory in Palestine was a step towards dismemberment of that empire. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, entered Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, on 11 December 1917.

By the time General Allenby took Jerusalem from the Ottomans in 1917, the new city was a patchwork of neighbourhoods and communities, each with a distinct ethnic character. This continued under British rule, as the New City of Jerusalem grew outside the old city walls, and the Old City of Jerusalem gradually emerged as little more than an impoverished older neighbourhood...................

https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/jerusalem-snow/
Some wonderful photos in your link Mellowyellow, thank you.
 

RnR

Member
Authored by Charlene Crandall, Melbourne, FL:
Nazi POW's in Melbourne.

Hitler’s Soldiers In Florida
an article in Orlando Sentinel by Joseph R. Morgan

"The citrus industry of Central Florida was the major beneficiary of the first wave of branch camp expansion in Florida," writes Robert D. Billinger Jr., a professor at North Carolina's Wingate College, in his in 2000 book Hitler's Soldiers in the Sunshine State."

A small camp of 127 POWs was located in Melbourne and another 148 in Clewiston to harvest sugarcane, where they slept in tents and it was very hot in the fields. The POWs were guarded by 20 Americans.

Florida has a long history of putting state and county prisoners to work, but few realize that some of those workers were prisoners of war. German POWs ended up on U.S. soil during World War II because the Nazis controlled much of Europe, leaving the Allies few choices. Holding German POWs across the Atlantic was safer that setting up prison camps in Britain. Most of the time, people didn't know we were hosting POWs on American soil.

As many as 10,000 German POWs were held at Florida camps. They worked in citrus groves, packinghouses, lumber mills, laundries, building supply yards, plant nurseries, cement plants and box plants. Florida needed workers during the war because so many people were serving in the military or working at defense-related jobs.

The United States opened camps for 378,000 prisoners of war from 1942 until 1946. Many of the Florida prisoners were German U-boat sailors. German boats operated along the Atlantic coast and the Caribbean and there were even scattered historical references to U-boats spotted in the St. Johns River. Many of these prisoners were from the North Afrika Korp, which were settled in the 48 states, with 10,000 located in 27 camps in Florida. Some of the POWs were from Italy.

Many POWs were not released after the war, but were sent to France and Britain to work to clean up damages from the war, including digging up old bombs, cleaning out rivers and streams, installing sewerage systems and otherwise putting things right. Nobody wins in war.

Source: Jim Robinson, Orlando Sentinel, February 22, 2004.

Robert D. Billinger Jr., Hitler’s Soldiers in the Sunshine State, January 1, 2000





From: http://www.brevardcounty.us/docs/files/12springsummer.pdf
View attachment 168884View attachment 168885View attachment 168886View attachment 168887
Fascinating and sad story Pappy, thank you.
 

RnR

Member
13 June 1514 – Henry Grace à Dieu Henry VIII's flagship is dedicated. At over 1,000 tons the largest warship in the world at this time was built at the new Woolwich Dockyard in England,

Henry Grace à Dieu or "Henry Grace of God", also known as Great Harry, was an English carrack or "great ship" of the King's Fleet in the 16th century. Contemporary with the Mary Rose, Henry Grace à Dieu was even larger. She was the first English two-decker and when launched she was, at 1500 tons burthen, the largest and most powerful warship in Europe.



However, very early on it became apparent that the ship was top heavy. She was plagued with heavy rolling in rough seas and her poor stability adversely affected gun accuracy and general performance as a fighting platform. To correct this, she underwent a substantial remodelling in Erith in 1536.

Henry Grace à Dieu saw little action. She was present at the Battle of the Solent against French forces in 1545, in which the Mary Rose sank. Overall, she was used more as a diplomatic vessel, taking Henry VIII to the summit with Francis I of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. After the accession of Edward VI in 1547, she was renamed for him. Her fate is uncertain; she may have been destroyed by fire at Woolwich in 1553, or ended up as a discarded hulk on the bank of the River Thames.
 

RnR

Member
13 June 1923 – Vegemite is first introduced to Australian shops.

On 13 June 1923 a dark brown paste hit grocery shelves around Australia. It had been invented after a few lean wartime years when imports of Marmite from Britain had dried up due to World War I.

Vegemite's story began in 1922 when the Fred Walker Company, which would later become Kraft Food Company, hired a young chemist to develop a spread from one of the richest known natural sources in the Vitamin B group – brewer’s yeast. After months of laboratory tests, Dr. Cyril P Callister, Australia’s leading food technologist of the 1920s and 30s, developed a tasty, spreadable paste. It was labelled ‘Pure Vegetable Extract’.

Creator Dr Cyril P Callister. Various vintage advertisements. Vegemite jars over the years.




Rationed in Australia during World War II, Vegemite was included in Australian Army rations and by the late 1940s was used in nine out of ten Australian homes. Vegemite's rise to popularity was further helped by marketing campaigns that began in 1954, using groups of smiling, healthy children singing a catchy jingle titled "We're happy little Vegemites".

Today, over 22 million jars of Vegemite are sold every year and it's regarded as an iconic product of Australia.
 


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